Difference between GPF, EPF, and PPF

Savings plays a critical part in an individual’s financial standing. It bolsters one’s financial footing and creates a stable ground for times when a person is out of income. On that note, it is particularly important to create a substantial corpus for one’s post-retirement life. 

Keeping that in perspective, the Indian government has introduced Provident Funds (PFs). In India, there are three types of provident funds, namely – the General Provident Fund (GPF), Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF), and Public Provident Fund (PPF). 

Each provident fund that is mentioned above promotes the practice of savings when an individual has a regular source of income. This helps to accumulate sufficient funds that can be used to meet expenses when one is out of income. However, there are also several basic differences between GPF and EPF, and PPF that an individual must duly consider.

Nevertheless, before directly delving into EPF vs GPF or PPF, it is crucial to learn about their characteristics. 

Meaning

  • General Provident Fund – 

The General Provident Fund is a savings-cum retirement scheme, particularly for government employees. Non-government employees cannot contribute to a GPF account. This point functions as a key difference between PPF and GPF

A government employee who is a member of GPF needs to contribute a portion of their income regularly till such time when he/she is employed. The accumulated corpus can be withdrawn once an individual retires. 

The balance in a GPF account is also eligible to earn interest at a fixed rate. The central government revises this rate from time to time. The General Provident Fund Interest Rate for the Financial Year 2022 is set at 7.1%. 

  • Public Provident Fund – 

As opposed to the General Provident Fund, PPF serves as a savings scheme for anyone willing to lock in their contributions for a prolonged period. However, similar to GPF, the interest rate on Public Provident Fund is revised every quarter by the Government of India. 

For the Financial Year 2022, the rate of interest on PPF has been set at 7.1%. Interest calculation under the PPF scheme is based on the lower balance between what is shown at the fifth day’s end in a month and it’s the last day. Therefore, any deposit that is made after the 5th of any month is not included in the interest calculation for that month. 

  • Employees’ Provident Fund – 

Employees’ Provident Fund is a retirement-cum savings scheme similar to GPF. However, unlike GPF, an EPF is mandatory for those working in an organisation with more than 20 employees. 

The balance in an EPF account accrues interest based on the rate set by the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation. For the current financial year, the interest rate is set at 8.5%. This interest is calculated monthly and transferred to an individual’s EPF account at the end of every year. 

Eligibility

  • Eligibility Criteria for GPF

The following individuals can open an account under the General Provident Fund scheme – 

  • Permanent government employees.
  • Temporary government employees after a continuous service of one year or more.
  • Re-employed pensioners (provided such pensioner is ineligible for Contributory Provident Fund).

 

  • Eligibility criteria for PPF

The following category of individuals can hold an account under the Public Provident Fund – 

  • Any resident individual who is an Indian citizen.
  • NRIs who opened a PPF account before leaving India.
  • Minors provided their guardians/parents represent them.

Moreover, it shall be noted that any individual cannot hold a PPF account jointly. Neither is it allowed for one individual to hold multiple PPF accounts. 

  • Eligibility criteria for EPF

EPF has a single criterion, i.e. the employee should belong to an organisation that employs a minimum of 20 individuals. 

Contributions

  • Contribution GPF

Government employees eligible for the General Provident Fund need to contribute a minimum of 6% of their salary toward GPF. The maximum amount an individual can contribute equals 100% of his/her income. 

Contribution to GPF can only be stopped in the case of suspension or retirement. Such contribution is usually stopped 3 months prior to when an individual is slated to retire, according to the GPF rules

  • Contribution PPF

A PPF account holder can only make a maximum of 12 contributions in a year. An individual needs to make a minimum contribution of Rs.500 per year. However, the maximum amount that an individual can contribute, both for themselves and their minor, cannot exceed Rs.1.5 lakh. The contribution is a primary point of GPF vs EPF.

  • Contribution EPF

In the case of EPF, both the employer and employee are required to contribute to such an employee’s EPF account. The standard contribution from both parties is 12% of the employee’s salary (basic + dearness allowance). However, recently the government reduced the EPF contribution to 10% for both employers and employees. 

Tax Benefits

  • Tax Exemptions of GPF

GPF is a tax-free retirement-cum savings scheme. Therefore, the contributions, interest earned on it as well as the returns from a GPF account are exempt from tax calculations under Section 80C. 

  • Tax Benefits of PPF

The deposits made every year toward a PPF account are eligible for tax exemption up to Rs.1.5 lakh under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act. Moreover, the interest earned on the balance amount in a PPF account along with the maturity value is exempt from taxation. 

  • Tax Benefits of EPF

If an individual withdraws the balance amount from his/her EPF account after 5 years of account creation, it is exempt from tax. Moreover, contributions made in an EPF account every year up to Rs.1.5 lakh are eligible for tax exemptions under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act, 1961. 

GPF vs PPF vs EPF

The difference between EPF and GPF as well as PPF are summarised in the table below. 

Parameters General Provident Fund Employees’ Provident Fund  Public Provident Fund
Eligibility Government employees Anyone working in an organisation with more than 20 employees Any Indian citizen
Maturity Until retirement  Age of 58 years 15 years from the date of account creation
Premature close On suspension or resignation from government service When the account holder is unemployed for 2 months or more Allowed after completion of 5 years of a child’s education or medical reasons
Interest Rate 7.1% 8.1% 7.1%

Related Pages:

EPF

Difference Between EPF and PPF

EPF Interest Rate

Difference Between GPF EPF and PPF

PF Withdrawal Rules

PF Transfer Form

EPF Form 10c

EPF Vs EPS

EPF Form 31

Employee PF Account Number

PF Withdrawal Form

EPF Passbook Download

EPF Form 5

Uan EPF Mobile Register Change

EPF Claim Status

Steps to Upload Kyc for EPF Uan

PF Form 19

EPF Payment

EPF Withdrawal Online

How to Get Your Name Changed in the EPF

EPF Form 10d

Register an EPF Grievance Online

EPF Form 15g

Loan Against PF

EPF Form 11

How to Merge PF Accounts

EPF Form 2

 

 

Related Pages:

PPF

SBI PPF Account

PPF Withdrawal

ICICI PPF Account

PPF Balance

HDFC PPF Account

Difference Between EPF And PPF

PNB PPF Account

Difference Between GPF EPF And PPF

Axis Bank PPF Account

PPF Returns

Canara Bank PPF Account

VPF Vs PPF

Bank of India PPF Account

ELSS Vs PPF

Union Bank PPF Account

NPS Vs PPF

IDBI PPF Account

PPF Limits

BOB PPF Account

List of Banks Offering PPF Account

Indian Bank PPF Account

PPF Vs LIC

YES Bank PPF Account

Loan Against PPF Account

Central Bank PPF Account

PPF Interest Rate

Post Office PPF account

PPF Payment Online

Bank of Maharashtra PPF Account

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