Market capitalization is one of the most effective ways of evaluating the value of a company. It is crucial for readers to understand that this evaluation of a company’s value is done based on a company’s stocks. Essentially, this is defined by the total market value of the outstanding shares of a company. This simple fact also means that publicly owned companies are the only ones which can be evaluated by this method of evaluation.
It is vital to understand what is market capitalization, especially for investors, since this can guide them in choosing the correct shares to invest in. Fluctuating market conditions and stock prices also impact the evaluation of a company when this method of evaluation is being used. For investors, understanding the value of a company is imperative while creating a long-term investment plan.
Understanding the value and risk associated with a company also helps an investor to make a balanced investment which is distributed across stocks from different companies. While judging companies by their market cap, it is important for investors to understand that this shows the stage of development of a company in its business venture. Investors should keep in mind this stage of development of a company while evaluating them to build their investment portfolio.
One of the major factors while evaluating a stock is on the basis of the market capitalization in India. Before going into the finer nuances, knowing the formula for this evaluation method can provide clarity to investors.
MC = N X P
MC stands for Market Capital,
N for the number of outstanding shares,
And P is the closing price of each share of the concerned company.
An example can demonstrate the calculation of market capitalization with more ease. If a company has 10,000 shares, each with a closing price of Rs.100; the total MC of the company would be computed as follows.
MC = N X P
= 10,000 X Rs.100
The total value of this company comes at Rs.10 lakh.
While the importance of market capitalization has been touched upon in its definition, it is crucial for potential investors to understand its need in further detail. This can also help them in understanding the market as well as its impact on the shares and value of a company.
While this evaluation process is convenient and universally accepted, investors should also note that it does not consider debt and other financial liabilities of a company. Furthermore, it also does not take into account the different types of returns, like the splitting of stocks, dividends, etc.
Based on this popular method of evaluating a company, there are 3 different types of stocks from which an investor can choose. Balancing out the portfolio with a good combination of all of these can minimise the chances of risk.
|Type of stock||Market cap|
|Small-Cap Stocks||Up to Rs.500 crore|
|Mid-Cap Stocks||From Rs.500 crore up to Rs.7,000 crore|
|Large-Cap Stocks||From Rs.7,000 crore up to Rs.20,000 crore|
Companies with MC above Rs.20,000 crore are often termed as Mega-Cap Stocks. The 3 major types of stocks which investors go on to invest in are discussed in further detail underneath.
These are some of the most stable groups of companies in the market. Consequently, investing in these companies is the least risky option. However, another important factor to keep in mind is that since these are stable companies, the return from these companies is comparatively low. Typically, these companies have reached the pinnacle of their growth, and as a result, there is a lesser chance of any drastic change in stock prices. However, the low risk accompanied by less aggressive growth makes investment in these stocks a conservative option.
Companies which have had a certain growth and are somewhat stable; and yet have immense potential of growth, come under this group of evaluation by market capitalization. These stocks indicate that a company is established to a certain extent in its industry, along with the promise of further growth. While investing in these companies can still be risky since they are not established in their industry, the risk in investing in their stocks is much less than that of the next group of companies. Subsequently, the return on them can be potentially higher than those of large-cap stocks.
Constituting companies which have the least market cap are the riskiest of all stocks. These are companies who are budding and are yet to establish themselves in their industry. This makes them highly risky. Success can sky-rocket their stock prices while failure can lead to a major loss for their shareholders. These are the most aggressive investment options.
While learning about market cap, investors should also learn a few relevant ratios which come into play. These ratios take MC into consideration.
The number of outstanding shares which are meant for trading by the public is called float. Free-float method of evaluating market capitalization uses this float, though it excludes the shares which are owned by company executives. Vitally, the major difference between conventional MC and free-float method of calculation is that the former takes the total value of stocks while the latter excludes locked-in stocks. This system of indexing has been adopted in most of the major exchanges around the globe.
There are quite a few factors which impact the market cap of a company. Learning these factors can aid investors in judging if a specific company is expected to offer good returns.
The number of outstanding shares of a company depends on factors like buying back of shares or issuing of new shares. In case of stock splits to issue new shares, the market capitalization of a company remains unchanged.
While understanding the impact of different factors on the MC, it is also advisable for investors to understand how investments grow or decline over the years. This is explained with the help of an example.
Considering the price of every share of a company is Rs.100 if a certain Mr. Bhagat invests Rs.10,000 he would acquire 100 shares of the company. Now when the market capitalization of this company goes up, the share prices are affected positively too. If the share prices go up to Rs. 120, the total value of Mr. Bhagats’s investment stands at Rs.12,000. Consequently, Mr. Bhagat stands to make a profit of Rs.2,000 on his initial investment of Rs.10,000.
There are a few other ways which are often used to calculate the value of an enterprise. These methods are discussed below in detail.
This value is calculated by taking into account all of a company’s assets. However, this asset evaluation is done with respect to that of common shareholders (equity investors).
The enterprise value of a company is calculated by evaluating the assets which act as functional core of a business. Additionally, all shareholders are taken into account. This includes equities, debts, preference shares, etc.
Working in the Indian market, investors should also know the 10 largest companies by market cap in India. These are provided in the table below.
|Company name||Market capitalization (in crore)|
|Reliance Industries Limited||Rs.8,49,234|
|Tata Consultancy Services Limited||Rs.7,91,772|
|HDFC Bank Limited||Rs.6,22,521|
|Hindustan Unilever Limited||Rs.3,72,708|
|Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited||Rs.3,46,629|
|State Bank of India||Rs.2,81,705|
|Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited||Rs.2,61,730|
|ICICI Bank Limited||Rs.2,53,192|
Understanding the value of an enterprise is vital before going on to invest in its stocks. Investors must pay attention to the details of market capitalization to create a healthy portfolio of investments.