A non-resident Indian having a stipulated source of income domestically from any source is required to open an NRO account to deposit the same. Any individual residing for more than 120 days in any abroad location with less than 365 days’ stay in 4 previous years in India is declared to be an NRI as per the Union Budget 2020’s proposal. He/she thus has to open an NRO account for any banking requirements arising within the geographical territories of India.
There are many types of accounts offered under the non-residential rupee ordinary category. It includes options like current, savings, recurring, fixed deposits, etc. Before going into the detail of different types of accounts for earnings within the country, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of these accounts.
Understanding the features offered by these accounts also ensures an NRI can understand the NRO account benefits. These are discussed below in detail.
Non-resident individuals can have domestic earning sources such as property let out rent, dividend income from stock market investments, etc. Such funds can only be deposited to financial institutions through an NRO account, thereby ensuring safekeeping of total earnings accrued domestically.
An NRI can opt for loans against NRO fixed deposit to meet any emergency expenses arising either in India or in the respective country of residence. Since these lines of credit are provided against collateral (e.g. NRO FD), the rate of interest is also considerably lower than those of unsecured loans.
Two or more individuals can jointly open an NRO account. While at least one individual has to be an NRI/PIO/OCI, the other account holder can also be Indian. Additionally, if both the applicants for this joint account reside abroad, they can also choose an individual living in the country to have the “power of attorney” for operating such an account domestically.
These accounts can be easily used by NRIs to invest in term deposits that have safe and assured returns. These include fixed and recurring deposit investments. NRIs should also note that fixed deposit accounts are covered up to a sum of Rs.1 lakh by the government of India in case the financial institution fails or defaults, thereby ensuring high returns through investment in NRO accounts.
Despite the numerous NRO account benefits, they also have a few limitations. These are discussed below too.
The table below explains all the eligibility criteria that are crucial for such an account.
|1.||Residential status||NRI, PIO, and OCI|
|3.||Joint account||Joint applicant can be NRI or residential Indian|
|4.||Power of attorney||Residential Indian|
The documents required for NRO account are also listed below.
NRIs should begin by checking the eligibility criteria and then arrange the necessary documents when they have decided to apply for an NRO account, to make the application process hassle-free.
Typically, financial institutions offer quite a few types of savings and investment options under this type of account. It includes savings or current accounts, as well as term deposits like FD, and even recurring deposit accounts.
While recurring deposit accounts offer a high return, the return on fixed deposit accounts is the highest. In case dependent family members undertake a frequent withdrawal of funds deposited in such accounts, a savings account is the best option. When choosing the best NRO account, investors should compare the interest offered by different financial institutions.
An NRO account is taxed at 30% of the total income accrued in India, as per the Income Tax Act of 1961. Additionally, a cess at 3% is applicable to the overall tax liability. Interest earned through such accounts is also taxable. Nonetheless, under Section 80TTA, interest income under Rs. 10,000 waivered, while NRIs reporting a total earning higher than the stipulated interest income is taxed.
Apart from NRO, there are 2 more types of NRI accounts. This includes NRE and FCNR accounts. Differences between such accounts should be taken into account for a clear understanding of the facilities provided by various NRI accounts available in India.
|S.No.||Points of difference||NRO||NRE||FCNR|
|1.||Currency transformation||INR to INR||Foreign currency to INR||Foreign currency to foreign currency|
|2.||Remittance||Up to 1 million USD or equivalent||Unlimited||Unlimited|
|3.||Tax liability||Both principal and interest are taxable.||Both principal and interest are non-taxable.||Both principal and interest are non-taxable.|
|4.||Joint account holder||Can be Indian or otherwise.||Must be an NRI||Must be an NRI.|
|5.||Fund transfer||Can transfer to NRO but not to NRE account||Can transfer to NRE, NRO, and FCNR account||Cannot transfer to NRO account, but can transfer to its NRE account.|
|6.||Type of deposit||Current, savings, fixed and recurring||Current, savings, fixed and recurring||Term deposits|
Be it rent on real estate property or returns on investments, there are many avenues for an NRI to earn from India even while they are living abroad. It is important these individuals convert their accounts or open a new account before they move abroad. These accounts are mandated by law and not abiding by the same can lead to penalty charges and fines.
Yes, the concerned financial institution should be informed of the change in your residential status.
While an individual who has power of attorney can withdraw, deposit and perform all kinds of actions with your account, he/she cannot close the NRO account.
Yes, you can avail tax benefits on loans availed against such term deposit accounts.