Why do people save money?

Moreover, from where will you save this money?

Usually, people like to save some money from their regular income.

Saving money is a part of financial planning. It is done for future requirement and emergencies.

Future needs can include your child’s education, medical needs, house construction, festivals, marriage, car purchase etc.

In order to acquire any asset, mere saving doesn’t help as saving money and putting the same in a bank locker doesn’t really provide the benefit of return.

With time, value of money decreases.

Remember, the value of Rs.100 today will continue to decline in the future.
Thus, it is important that you adopt a proper investing plan to ensure you beat inflation and generate a substantial return for your investments.

As an investor, your main motto would be to attain returns. The money kept in a bank fetches some interest, but there are other avenues that can give you higher returns.

Selection of an investment instrument depends on multiple factors and is driven by the psychology of the investor.

 

What are the various investment options available to an investor?

1.Bank deposits

People who are very conservative and not willing to take risks may find bank deposits a good investment option.

Though bank deposits offer low interest, the money kept in a bank is safe, liquid and the investor need not bother with reviewing the performance.

Bank deposits could be fixed deposits (also known as term deposits) or recurring deposits.

The returns offered can vary from 6-10% typically.

2. Go Gold!

Gold is a good investment avenue.

The price of gold has been increasing over the past decade, but the metal is not very liquid and may not be a good investment option for medium term.

In fact, people are shifting towards financial assets from precious metals.

3.Provident fund

Provident Fund is another area which is basically a safety net after retirement.

It comprises of Public Provident Fund (PPF) and Employee Provident Fund (EPF).
It is a risk-free investment, but the returns are in the range of 8-9% and thus face the risk of inflation.

This sort of investment is a traditional in nature and is viewed more as a source of money for the future that may be required for children’s education, marriage, and income after retirement.

4.New age investment instruments – Mutual funds

Depending on the investor’s psychology, a good number of investments are made in direct equity, equity mutual funds and debt mutual funds.

These instruments tend to provide higher returns than any other instrument available in the market, but at the same time, it comes with a higher degree of volatility.

Thus, success in these instruments requires a good understanding of the capital market, periodic review of investments and fundamental thesis behind the same.

Following table details the kind of investment instruments available with an investor:

 Investment instruments and their profile

InstrumentRiskTenureLiquidlyReturnsTaxation
Direct EquityHighCan be sold anytimeHighMarket linkedSTCG – 15%

LTCG – 10%*

Mutual Fund EquityModerate-highOpen-ended^HighMarket linkedSTCG – 15%

LTCG – 10%*

Real EstateHighCan be sold anytimeLowMarket linkedSTCG – slab based

LTCG – 20%**

GoldLow-moderateCan be sold anytimeVariesMarket linkedSTCG – slab based

LTCG – 20%**

PPFNo risk15 yearsPartial withdrawal^^7-8%Interest tax-free
Bank deposit-fixedLow7 days to 10-yearPremature exit6-10%Interest taxable as per income slab
Debt FundsLow-highOpen-endedHighMarket linkedSTCG – slab based

LTCG – 20%**

RBI Taxable bondsNo risk7 yearsLow7-8%Interest taxable as per income slab
NPSLow-highBelow 60 years entry ageLimitedMarket linked40% of corpus tax exempted
Senior Citizen Savings OptionNo risk5-YearsLow8-9%Interest taxable

Note: STCG – Short-term Capital Gain; LTCG – Long-term capital gain; Gains up to Rs. 1 lakh exempted;

** Post indexation; ^ELSS comes with 3-year lock-in period; ^^ Subject to conditions

For physical and paper gold, and debt funds, long-term is 3 years; For real estate, long-term is 2 years

Source: The Economic Times, Author’s note

To conclude, should you wish to explore mutual funds for investment, you may check out Groww recommended large-cap funds, small-cap funds, balanced funds, debt funds, and ELSS funds.

Should you need any assistance, feel free to connect with us and we shall be glad to assist.